© 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Public ITE PC v4.0 Chapter 1 1 Chapter 1: Introduction to the Personal Computer IT Essentials: PC. – ppt download

ITE PC v4.0 Chapter 1 3 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Public Chapter 1 Objectives  1.1 Explain the IT industry certification  1.2 Describe a computer system  1.3 Identify the names, purposes, and characteristics of cases and power supplies  1.4 Identify the names, purposes, and characteristics of internal components… Continue reading © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Public ITE PC v4.0 Chapter 1 1 Chapter 1: Introduction to the Personal Computer IT Essentials: PC. – ppt download


A+ Certification Guide – ppt download

Chapter 1 Objectives The Essential Parts of Any Computer: The vital components of a PC—an overview Hardware, Software, and Firmware: Explain how hardware, software, and firmware interact, and define the major types of software and utility programs. Points of Failure: Learn about possible issues that could cause the computer to fail—for example, overheating, hard drive… Continue reading A+ Certification Guide – ppt download


PTA Issues SOPs for Point to Point Communication over ISM Band

PTA has allowed the establishment and the installation of outdoor Point to Point Wireless Link(s) by telecom operators, mainly the cellular companies and Local Loop (fixed and wireless telephone operators) and Data-CVAS License holders), to be operated in compliance with Industrial Scientific and Medical (ISM) band. This step will promote advance application of services offered… Continue reading PTA Issues SOPs for Point to Point Communication over ISM Band


How to update the software on my Samsung smartphone or tablet using Samsung Kies

Available software updates: The Samsung Galaxy S II 4G has a new update for the Android operating system. Check which version you currently have. Before you begin the software update: Please note that Samsung Kies does not automatically back up your data (contacts, calendar, photos and other files). Please back up all of your important… Continue reading How to update the software on my Samsung smartphone or tablet using Samsung Kies

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Cloud Computing

We have been using cloud computing for ages, in one form or another. It comprises of services and data bases that are accessed through web or any private network. It is basically a paradigm where a large pool of systems is connected in private or public networks to provide infrastructure for application, data and file storage.

This technology has decreased the cost of computation, application hosting, content storage and delivery. Cloud computing has proven to be a practical approach to experience direct cost benefits and also has the ability to transform a data center from a capital-intensive setup to a variable priced environment.

Models for Cloud Computing

Services that Cloud Providers offer can be categorized into three groups:

Software as a service (SaaS)

It offers a complete application to the customer as a service on demand. Highly scalable internet based applications are hosted on the cloud and are offered as services as the end users. SaaS is offered by companies such as:

  • Amazon Web Services
  • CA Technologies
  • Salesforce
  • Windows Azure
  • Open Stack etc.

Platform as a Service (PaaS)

In this group, a layer of software or development environment is encapsulated and is offered as a service upon which other higher levels of service can be built. It provides freedom to the customer to build his/her own applications that can be run on provider’s infrastructure. Some prominent PaaS Cloud Computing Companies are

  • Concur Technologies
  • Cisco
  • Google
  • Ariba
  • Unisys etc.

Here, the platforms are used to design develop, build and test applications are provided by the cloud infrastructure.

Infrastructure as a service (IaaS)

It provides basic storage and computing capabilities as standardize services over the network. The customer typically deploys his own software in the infrastructure. Some prominent IaaS Cloud Companies are

  • Amazon (EC2)
  • GoGrid
  • Microsoft
  • HP
  • AT&T
  • RackSpace etc.

It is a pay per use model which offers services like storage, database management and compute capabilities on demand.

Understanding the Public, Private & Hybrid Clouds

Cloud Computing is based on the cloud location and they can be further classified as:

Public Cloud

It includes third parties that deliver superior economies of scale to customers, give each individual client an attractive “low-cost’. With limited configuration, all customers typically share the same infrastructure pool. The benefit of Public Cloud is that they are larger than an enterprise cloud and thus provide the ability to scale seamlessly on demand.

Private Cloud

Private clouds are built exclusively for a single enterprise and they aim to address concerns on data security. The benefit of private cloud is that they offer greater control which is typically lacking in public clouds.

Hybrid Cloud

Both public and private cloud models come under the Hybrid Cloud. It is capable of providing on-demand externally provisioned scale. This enables service providers to utilize third party cloud providers in a full or partial manner and thus increasing the flexibility of computing.

The Advantages and Disadvantages of Cloud Computing

Presently, companies of all sizes have begun to adapt to Cloud Computing and this technology is evolving like never before. This trend is expected to grow and develop even further in the coming few years.


It offers the following advantages:

Cost efficiency

It is probably the most cost-efficient method to use, maintain and upgrade.  In terms of finance, the traditional desktop software costs companies a lot and adding up the licensing fee for multiple users can prove to be very expensive. On the other hand, Cloud Computing can significantly lower the company’s IT expenses.

Unlimited Storage Capacity

Cloud gives almost unlimited storage capacity for storing information.

Quick Deployment

Once opting for cloud computing gives the advantage that the entire system becomes fully functional in a matter of few minutes.

Information from anywhere

Cloud users can access the information more easily and from anywhere, where there is availability of internet connection.

Backup and Recovery

Backing up and restoring the data in cloud computing is much easier than storing the same on any physical device.


Cloud Computing is undoubtedly beneficial for mid-size to large scale companies, it is not without its downsized specifically for smaller businesses. Small businesses need to be aware of these aspects before adapting to this technology. The main risks that are involved in Cloud Computing are as follows


Security is a major issue in cloud computing, businesses should be aware of the fact that they will be submitting their company’s sensitive information to a cloud service provider. Therefore they are required to choose the most reliable cloud service provider.

Vulnerable to attacks

Companies are vulnerable to hack attacks and threats while storing information in the cloud. Therefore there are always chances of stealth of delicate information about the companies.

Dependent on Internet Connection

There can always be a possible downtime as small businesses depend on their internet connection while using cloud computing.


By using a cloud computing vendors services, it often relates to locking the business into using their proprietary applications.

By these few drawbacks, it does not mean that Cloud Computing is not beneficial at all. Owners of the small businesses have different needs and different comfort levels and it may be more advantageous to use cloud computing for certain applications.

Clould Computing can prove to be a great asset to companies if it is understood and used properly and can be an opportunity for small businesses to stabilize the efforts implied by IT management.



Info about ATMs Machine

70 Percent of Pakistan isn’t Aware of ATMs: Study

Only 30 percent of Pakistanis claim to have heard the word “ATM” and understand its meaning, leaving 70 percent of Pakistani population totally unfamiliar with the term, let alone using it.

This was found during a survey that Gallup Pakistan and HORUS Development finance jointly conducted just recently. Gallup Pakistan says that it interviewed over 10,000 households across Pakistan for the survey.

The primary aim of the study was to determine the extent of financial services being used by Pakistanis as well as to provide insights into the barriers faced by the Pakistani public in accessing formal financial services.

A nationally representative sample of men and women from across the four provinces were asked, “Please tell me if you have heard the following word: ATM.”


In response to question: “Please tell me if you have heard the following word: ATM?”

In response, 33 percent respondents said that they never heard the word ATM while another 37 percent of respondents had heard the word “ATM” but didn’t know its purpose or meaning. Only 30 percent of respondents had heard the word ATM and knew its purpose and meaning.

The 30 percent figure, which shows an increasing public awareness level about ATMs in a period of past five years, happened because of the deployment and increased utility of ATMs due to introduction of BISP cards and uptake of branchless banking mainly in rural areas.



This is a a sad state of affairs not only for government and authorities but also for banking industry as well as for telecom industry that offers branchless banking solutions through various channels including ATMs.

According to State Bank of Pakistan statistics, there are more than 27,000 ATMs across the country that are used to banking customers to withdraw nearly Rs. 250 billion each month.

A rural/urban breakdown reveals that 47% of the respondents in urban areas and 21% in rural areas have heard and understand the meaning of the word ‘ATM’. ‘




With a considerable difference of 26%, this shows that there is a slightly greater awareness of ATMs in urban areas as opposed to rural areas.

This difference may also be seen as a manifestation of the considerable disparity in the socio-economic development between the urban and rural areas of Pakistan.

34% in the urban areas said that they have heard the word but do not understand its meaning while the same answer was given by 39% of the respondents in rural areas. However, only 19% respondents in urban areas had never heard of ATMs as opposed to 40% rural respondents.

An overwhelming majority of residents in Baluchistan (60%) have never heard of the word ATM whereas 54% respondents in KPK are aware of the word but do not understand its meaning.

According to the provincial breakdown, financial literacy regarding ATMs in Pakistan is generally low. 30% of the respondents in Punjab, 40% in Sindh, 18% in KPK and 14% in Baluchistan said that they have heard of the word ‘ATM’ and understand its meaning.

However, 31% of the respondents in Punjab, 34% in Sindh, 27% in KPK and 60% in Baluchistan have never heard of the word ATM. Meanwhile, 39% respondents in Punjab, 26% in Sindh, 54% in KPK and 26% in Baluchistan have heard of ATMs but are not unaware of the meaning and purpose of an ATM.



These results are a part of the nationwide Access to Finance Study conducted by the State Bank of Pakistan in 2015 with the intent of determining the degree of financial inclusiveness of the Pakistani public.

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Sec Tools.Org: Top 125 Network Security Tools

Wireshark (#1, 1) Wireshark (known as Ethereal until a trademark dispute in Summer 2006) is a fantastic open source multi-platform network protocol analyzer. It allows you to examine data from a live network or from a capture file on disk. You can interactively browse the capture data, delving down into just the level of packet detail… Continue reading Sec Tools.Org: Top 125 Network Security Tools

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Pakistan Lags Behind in Cyber Security Preparedness

Pakistan lags behind even from its neighboring countries like India and Iran in legislation and well-devised policies to react to any cyber offensives, which at worst could even affect the country’s territorial sovereignty. This was the crux of a seminar titled ‘Cyber Threats: Implications on National Security’ organized by the Institute of Policy Studies (IPS)… Continue reading Pakistan Lags Behind in Cyber Security Preparedness

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Pakistan Needs to Protect IP Rights for Academic & Economic Growth

Expressing serious concerns over lack of awareness about Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs), Chairman Intellectual Property Organization (IPO) Shahid Rashid said that practice of patent registration has been on a further decline since 2009 as the country could file only 117 patents during last five years. Only 1050 patents could be filed in the country during… Continue reading Pakistan Needs to Protect IP Rights for Academic & Economic Growth

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Differences Between a Corporate Office & a Registered Office

Corporate Office Corporate is a term that pertains to corporations. A corporate office is the main office, also called the headquarters, of a corporation. This office is usually the hub of the company and often serves as the central location where top decisions are made. The corporate office is generally where the executives of the… Continue reading Differences Between a Corporate Office & a Registered Office